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HTMLx3Edit

HTML 4.01 supports the ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set.
The lower part of ISO-8859-1 (codes from 0-127) is the original 7-BIT ASCII.
Most of these characters can be used without a character reference.
The higher part of ISO-8859-1 (codes from 160-255) can all be used using
character entity names.

Character Entities

Some characters have a special meaning in HTML, like the less than sign (<)
that defines the start of an HTML tag. If we want the browser to actually
display these characters we must insert character entities in the HTML source.

A character entity has three parts: an ampersand (&), an entity name or a # and
an entity number, and finally a semicolon (;).

To display a less than sign in an HTML document we must write: &lt; &#60;

The advantage of using a name instead of a number is that a name is easier to
remember. The disadvantage is that not all browsers support the newest entity
names, while the support for entity numbers is very good in almost all browsers.

Note that the entity names are case sensitive.


ASCII Entities with new Entity NamesEdit

Result Description Entity Name Entity Number
" quotation mark &quot; &#34;
' apostrophe  &apos; &#39;
& ampersand &amp; &#38;
< less-than &lt; &#60;
> greater-than &gt; &#62;

ISO 8859-1 Symbol EntitiesEdit

Result Description Entity Name Entity Number
  non-breaking space &nbsp; &#160;
¡ inverted exclamation mark &iexcl; &#161;
¤ currency &curren; &#164;
¢ cent &cent; &#162;
£ pound &pound; &#163;
¥ yen &yen; &#165;
¦ broken vertical bar &brvbar; &#166;
§ section &sect; &#167;
¨ spacing diaeresis &uml; &#168;
© copyright &copy; &#169;
ª feminine ordinal indicator &ordf; &#170;
« angle quotation mark (left) &laquo; &#171;
¬ negation &not; &#172;
­ soft hyphen &shy; &#173;
® registered trademark &reg; &#174;
trademark &trade;  
¯ spacing macron &macr; &#175;
° degree &deg; &#176;
± plus-or-minus  &plusmn; &#177;
² superscript 2 &sup2; &#178;
³ superscript 3 &sup3; &#179;
´ spacing acute &acute; &#180;
µ micro &micro; &#181;
paragraph &para; &#182;
· middle dot &middot; &#183;
¸ spacing cedilla &cedil; &#184;
¹ superscript 1 &sup1; &#185;
º masculine ordinal indicator &ordm; &#186;
» angle quotation mark (right) &raquo; &#187;
¼ fraction 1/4 &frac14; &#188;
½ fraction 1/2 &frac12; &#189;
¾ fraction 3/4 &frac34; &#190;
¿ inverted question mark &iquest; &#191;
× multiplication &times; &#215;
÷ division &divide; &#247;

ISO 8859-1 Character EntitiesEdit

<</td> <td>capital a, acute accent</td> <td>&Aacute;</td> <td>&#193;</td> <tr> <td>Â</td> <td>capital a, circumflex accent</td> <td>&Acirc;</td> <td>&#194;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ã</td> <td>capital a, tilde</td> <td>&Atilde;</td> <td>&#195;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ä</td> <td>capital a, umlaut mark</td> <td>&Auml;</td> <td>&#196;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Å</td> <td>capital a, ring</td> <td>&Aring;</td> <td>&#197;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Æ</td> <td>capital ae</td> <td>&AElig;</td> <td>&#198;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ç</td> <td>capital c, cedilla</td> <td>&Ccedil;</td> <td>&#199;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>È</td> <td>capital e, grave accent</td> <td>&Egrave;</td> <td>&#200;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>É</td> <td>capital e, acute accent</td> <td>&Eacute;</td> <td>&#201;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ê</td> <td>capital e, circumflex accent</td> <td>&Ecirc;</td> <td>&#202;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ë</td> <td>capital e, umlaut mark</td> <td>&Euml;</td> <td>&#203;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ì</td> <td>capital i, grave accent</td> <td>&Igrave;</td> <td>&#204;</td> </tr> <tr> <</td> <td>capital i, acute accent</td> <td>&Iacute;</td> <td>&#205;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Î</td> <td>capital i, circumflex accent</td> <td>&Icirc;</td> <td>&#206;</td> </tr> <tr> <</td> <td>capital i, umlaut mark</td> <td>&Iuml;</td> <td>&#207;</td> </tr> <tr> <</td> <td>capital eth, Icelandic</td> <td>&ETH;</td> <td>&#208;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ñ</td> <td>capital n, tilde</td> <td>&Ntilde;</td> <td>&#209;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ò</td> <td>capital o, grave accent</td> <td>&Ograve;</td> <td>&#210;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ó</td> <td>capital o, acute accent</td> <td>&Oacute;</td> <td>&#211;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ô</td> <td>capital o, circumflex accent</td> <td>&Ocirc;</td> <td>&#212;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Õ</td> <td>capital o, tilde</td> <td>&Otilde;</td> <td>&#213;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ö</td> <td>capital o, umlaut mark</td> <td>&Ouml;</td> <td>&#214;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ø</td> <td>capital o, slash</td> <td>&Oslash;</td> <td>&#216;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ù</td> <td>capital u, grave accent</td> <td>&Ugrave;</td> <td>&#217;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ú</td> <td>capital u, acute accent</td> <td>&Uacute;</td> <td>&#218;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Û</td> <td>capital u, circumflex accent</td> <td>&Ucirc;</td> <td>&#219;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ü</td> <td>capital u, umlaut mark</td> <td>&Uuml;</td> <td>&#220;</td> </tr> <tr> <</td> <td>capital y, acute accent</td> <td>&Yacute;</td> <td>&#221;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Þ</td> <td>capital THORN, Icelandic</td> <td>&THORN;</td> <td>&#222;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ß</td> <td>small sharp s, German</td> <td>&szlig;</td> <td>&#223;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>à</td> <td>small a, grave accent</td> <td>&agrave;</td> <td>&#224;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>á</td> <td>small a, acute accent</td> <td>&aacute;</td> <td>&#225;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>â</td> <td>small a, circumflex accent</td> <td>&acirc;</td> <td>&#226;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ã</td> <td>small a, tilde</td> <td>&atilde;</td> <td>&#227;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ä</td> <td>small a, umlaut mark</td> <td>&auml;</td> <td>&#228;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>å</td> <td>small a, ring</td> <td>&aring;</td> <td>&#229;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>æ</td> <td>small ae</td> <td>&aelig;</td> <td>&#230;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ç</td> <td>small c, cedilla</td> <td>&ccedil;</td> <td>&#231;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>è</td> <td>small e, grave accent</td> <td>&egrave;</td> <td>&#232;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>é</td> <td>small e, acute accent</td> <td>&eacute;</td> <td>&#233;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ê</td> <td>small e, circumflex accent</td> <td>&ecirc;</td> <td>&#234;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ë</td> <td>small e, umlaut mark</td> <td>&euml;</td> <td>&#235;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ì</td> <td>small i, grave accent</td> <td>&igrave;</td> <td>&#236;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>í</td> <td>small i, acute accent</td> <td>&iacute;</td> <td>&#237;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>î</td> <td>small i, circumflex accent</td> <td>&icirc;</td> <td>&#238;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ï</td> <td>small i, umlaut mark</td> <td>&iuml;</td> <td>&#239;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ð</td> <td>small eth, Icelandic</td> <td>&eth;</td> <td>&#240;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ñ</td> <td>small n, tilde</td> <td>&ntilde;</td> <td>&#241;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ò</td> <td>small o, grave accent</td> <td>&ograve;</td> <td>&#242;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ó</td> <td>small o, acute accent</td> <td>&oacute;</td> <td>&#243;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ô</td> <td>small o, circumflex accent</td> <td>&ocirc;</td> <td>&#244;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>õ</td> <td>small o, tilde</td> <td>&otilde;</td> <td>&#245;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ö</td> <td>small o, umlaut mark</td> <td>&ouml;</td> <td>&#246;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ø</td> <td>small o, slash</td> <td>&oslash;</td> <td>&#248;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ù</td> <td>small u, grave accent</td> <td>&ugrave;</td> <td>&#249;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ú</td> <td>small u, acute accent</td> <td>&uacute;</td> <td>&#250;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>û</td> <td>small u, circumflex accent</td> <td>&ucirc;</td> <td>&#251;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ü</td> <td>small u, umlaut mark</td> <td>&uuml;</td> <td>&#252;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ý</td> <td>small y, acute accent</td> <td>&yacute;</td> <td>&#253;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>þ</td> <td>small thorn, Icelandic</td> <td>&thorn;</td> <td>&#254;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>ÿ</td> <td>small y, umlaut mark</td> <td>&yuml;</td> <td>&#255;</td> </tr> </table>

Pinyin TonesEdit

The Pinyin system also incorporates suprasegmental phonemes to represent the four tones of Mandarin. Each tone is indicated by a diacritical mark above a non-medial vowel. Note that the lower-case letter "a" in pinyin is supposed to be of the handwritten type with no curl over the top. This can be achieved by using a font in which the letter happens to look like this, or alternatively by specifying it using Unicode as we have done in the bracketed example. Note that tones marks can also appear on consonants in certain vowelless exclamations.

  1. The first tone is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel:

    (ɑ̄) ā ē ī ō ū ǖ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǖ
  2. The second tone is denoted by an acute accent (ˊ):

    <</font>
  3. The third tone is symbolized by a caron (ˇ, also known as a reverse circumflex). Note, it is officially not a breve (˘, lacking a downward angle), although this misuse is somewhat common on the Internet.

    (ɑ̌) ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǔ ǚ Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǔ Ǚ
  4. The fourth tone is represented by a grave accent (ˋ):

    (ɑ̀) à è ì ò ù ǜ À È Ì Ò Ù Ǜ
  5. The fifth or neutral tone is represented by a normal vowel without any accent mark:

    (ɑ) a e i o u ü A E I O U Ü
(In some cases, this is also written with a dot before the syllable; for example, ·ma.)

Since most computer fonts do not contain the macron or caron accents, a common convention is to postfix the individual syllables with a digit representing their tone (e.g., "tóng" (tong with the rising tone) is written "tong2"). The digit is numbered as the order listed above, except the "fifth tone", which, in addition to being numbered 5, is also either not numbered or numbered zero, as in ma0 (吗/嗎, an interrogative marker).

The pinyin vowels are ordered as a, o, e, i, u, and ü. Generally, the tone mark is placed on the vowel that first appears in the order mentioned. Liú is a superficial exception whose true pronunciation is lióu. And since o precedes i, óu (contracted to ú) is marked.

These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classical example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones:

() () () () (·ma)

(Being "mother", "hemp", "horse", "insult" and a question particle, respectively.)

Some Other Entities supported by HTMLEdit

Result Description Entity Name Entity Number
À capital a, grave accent &Agrave; &#192;
<</td> <td>zero width joiner</td> <td>&zwj;</td> <td>&#8205;</td> <tr> <td>‎</td> <td>left-to-right mark</td> <td>&lrm;</td> <td>&#8206;</td> </tr> <tr> <</td> <td>right-to-left mark</td> <td>&rlm;</td> <td>&#8207;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>–</td> <td>en dash</td> <td>&ndash;</td> <td>&#8211;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>—</td> <td>em dash</td> <td>&mdash;</td> <td>&#8212;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>‘</td> <td>left single quotation mark</td> <td>&lsquo;</td> <td>&#8216;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>’</td> <td>right single quotation mark</td> <td>&rsquo;</td> <td>&#8217;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>‚</td> <td>single low-9 quotation mark</td> <td>&sbquo;</td> <td>&#8218;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>“</td> <td>left double quotation mark</td> <td>&ldquo;</td> <td>&#8220;</td> </tr> <tr> <</td> <td>right double quotation mark</td> <td>&rdquo;</td> <td>&#8221;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>„</td> <td>double low-9 quotation mark</td> <td>&bdquo;</td> <td>&#8222;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>†</td> <td>dagger</td> <td>&dagger;</td> <td>&#8224;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>‡</td> <td>double dagger</td> <td>&Dagger;</td> <td>&#8225;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>…</td> <td>horizontal ellipsis</td> <td>&hellip;</td> <td>&#8230;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>‰</td> <td>per mille </td> <td>&permil;</td> <td>&#8240;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>‹</td> <td>single left-pointing angle quotation</td> <td>&lsaquo;</td> <td>&#8249;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>›</td> <td>single right-pointing angle quotation</td> <td>&rsaquo;</td> <td>&#8250;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>€</td> <td>euro</td> <td>&euro;</td> <td>&#8364;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>™</td> <td>trademark</td> <td> </td> <td>&#8482;</td> </tr> </table>

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Result Description Entity Name Entity Number
Πcapital ligature OE &OElig; &#338;
œ small ligature oe &oelig; &#339;
Š capital S with caron &Scaron; &#352;
š small S with caron &scaron; &#353;
Ÿ capital Y with diaeres &Yuml; &#376;
ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent &circ; &#710;
˜ small tilde &tilde; &#732;
en space &ensp; &#8194;
em space &emsp; &#8195;
thin space &thinsp; &#8201;
zero width non-joiner &zwnj; &#8204;